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2017年12月大学英语四级长篇阅读样题分析

来源:考试在线2017-07-17 在线模考培训课程

  一、题型概览

  (一)背景和考试综合

  长篇阅读的前身是快速阅读;2013年12年之后,四六级发生了改革。改革之后,有两个变化:一是位置发生了变化,由原来的Part II调至Part III里的Section B, 即由原来的单独部分,变成了与其他的阅读理解放在一起;另一个变化就是题目形式的变化,由原来的多项选择题变成了段落信息匹配题。这一变化更挑战考生对于文章的理解程度和信息定位的能力,应该说是加大了难度。

  四级考试中快速阅读调整为长篇阅读顺应了时代发展的要求。该题型主要考查段落信息匹配。在筛选信息的过程中,要求考生在把握文章整体的基础上,对文章的一些细节进行整理、归纳以及同义转换。这意味着考生不仅要读懂文章,还要对所掌握的信息进行加工处理。

  (二)文章特点

  通过试卷可知,长篇阅读的文章长度、难度、体裁、题材、题目数量、考试时间、所占分值等都不变。

  (三)试题特点

  1.题干中的细节信息往往反映文章的主旨和段落主题。通过快速地阅读题干中的若干细节信息,考生可以迅速了解原文的主旨大意。

  2.题干提供的细节信息中往往暗含一些说明文或议论文所必需的逻辑关系,考生可以利用这种关系预先对一些表达进行排序,这对于解答信息匹配题有着非常重要的意义。

  3.提干提供的信息表达中通常包括如下三类:能够指示开头段的词,如overview, introduction, initiation, main idea, definition 等;能够指示结尾段的词,如future, solution, conclusion, suggestion, summary 等;能够帮助考生回原文定位的特殊词,如rate, ration, proportion, percentage, number, figure, statistical demographics 等。

  4.有些试题题干中的细节信息往往会和原文的其他某一题目联系密切,考生可通过先解答原文的其他题目来获得解答题目的线索和提示性信息。

  【样题分析】

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains in information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  文章大意:本文主要讲述大学在增强国家实力和促进国际化交流等方面的巨大作用。A段总括全文,指出当代大学对国家强盛和世界和平起着至关重要的作用。B-E段讲述各个大学自觉走上全球化道路。F-I段讲研究型大学促成了美国的腾飞,但仍有诸多因素制约这种大学的发展。

  46. American universities prepare their undergraduates for global careers by giving them chances for international study or internship.

  解析:定位到D段第3、4句:And in the United States, institutions are helping place students in summer internships(实习) abroad to prepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity—and providing the financial resources to make it possible.

  47. Since the mid-1970s, the enrollment of overseas students has increased at an annual rate of 3.9 percent.

  解析:定位到C段第2句:Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004.

  48. The enrollment of international students will have a positive impact on America rather than threaten its competitiveness.

  解析:定位到I段第1句:Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the United States has two important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and—like immigrants throughout history—strengthen the nation;

  49. The way research is carried out in universities has changed as a result of globalization.

  解析:定位到E段:Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done.

  50. Of the newly hired professors in science and engineering in the United States, twenty percent come from foreign countries.

  解析:定位到C段末句:In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.

  51. The number of foreign students applying to U.S. universities decreased sharply after September 11 due to changes in the visa process.

  解析:定位到H段第3句:In the wake of September 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to U.S. universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia, Singapore and the U.K.

  52. The U.S. federal funding for research has been unsteady for years.

  解析:定位到G段第2句:Most politicians recognize the link between investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady.

  53. Around the world, governments encourage the model of linking university-based science and industrial application.

  解析:定位到F段第2、3句:The link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: …. Around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.

  54. Present-day universities have become a powerful force for global integration.

  解析:定位到A段第末句:But at same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.

  55. When foreign students leave America, they will bring American values back to their home countries.

  解析:定位到I段第3句:…and second, foreign students who study in the United States become ambassadors for many of its most cherished values when they return home.

  根据四级样卷可知,全文共计9个段落,对应10题,这意味着必有一段对应两题。事实上,从答案来看,其中有两个段落分别对应了两道题,有一个段落不对应任何题。

  原快速阅读的考试时间是15分钟,原深度阅读(含选词填空+仔细阅读)的考试时间是25分钟,而调整后的阅读理解(含选词填空+长篇阅读+仔细阅读)考试时间是40分钟,由此可推出新题型长篇阅读的考试时间基本不变,大概15分钟。

  从样卷来看,长篇阅读主要考查段落信息匹配题。段落信息匹配题有4个特点:

  1.绝对乱序:如第一个题干对应的并不是原文的第一段,而是第四段。

  2.绝对同义转换:如第49题题干中的“change”为E段首句中 “reshape”的同义转换。

  3.通常超细节:如第47题题干中的 “since the mid-1970s”, “3.9 percent”, 第50题题干中的 “twenty percent” 都是考查学生对数字这一小细节是否注意。

  4.通常无特殊印刷体。

  从这4大特点我们足以看出这类题的难度:绝对乱序意味着考生不能按“题文同序”原则逐一解题;同义转换、超细节及无特殊印刷体意味着考生要费大量脑细胞去理解所读到的每个信息,无法快速地定位!

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