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雅思阅读难句分析3

来源:考试在线2017-08-12 在线模考培训课程

  37. historians such as le roy ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include,but are not confined to,attitudes toward crime and the law)and have revealed how the authorities administered justice. 象勒罗伊。拉迪里(le roy ladurie)一类的史学家利用这些文献史料从中挖掘出某些个案史(case history)来,阐明了不同社会群体的态度(这些态度包括,但并非局限于,对犯罪和法律的态度),并揭示出当局是如何执行审判的。

  38. it can be inferred from the passage that a historian who wished to compare crime rates per thousand in a european city in one decade of the fifteenth century with crime rates in another decade of that century would probably be most aided by better information about which of the following? 从文章中可以推断出来,一个希望比较十五世纪以前一个十年的某个欧洲城市中的每千人的犯罪率与另外一个十年中的犯罪率的历史学家将会被以下那种信息的提高所最好的帮助?

  39. my point is that its central consciousness-its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people's lives-owes much to that earlier literary heritage,a heritage that,in general,has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics. 我的论点是,其作品的中心意识——它将阶级和性别作为人们生活的决定性影响而作出的深邃理解——在很大程度上借鉴了那个早期的文学遗产,而这一遗产就总体而言还尚未获得大多数当代文学评论家的足够重视。

  40. even the requirement that biomaterials processed from these materials be nontoxic to host tissue can be met by techniques derived from studying the reactions of tissue cultures to biomaterials or from short-term implants. 即使是这样的要求,即从这些材料中加工出来的生物材料应该对受移植者的组织无害,也能够通过从研究组织培养对生物材料的反应而来的,或从研究短期移植而来的技术来满足。

  41. but achieving necessary matches in physical properties across interfaces between living and nonliving matter requires knowledge of which molecules control the bonding of cells to each other-an area that we have not yet explored thoroughly. 但是,要想沿着原生和非原生物质之间的界面获取生理特性的必要匹配,需要某种知识,即什么样的分子控制着细胞彼此间的结合——而对这一领域,我们尚未进行充分的探索。

  42. islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law-notwithstanding,of course,a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned-that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena. 伊斯兰法是一种如此不同于所有其它法律形式的现象——毋庸置疑,尽管就其主要内容和有积极意义的法规而言,与其它法律形式中的这种或那种形式存在着相当数量的且不可避免的巧合相似之处——以致于对它进行研究便显得不可或缺,以便充分理解有可能存在的法律现象的全部范围。

  43. (both jewish law and canon law are more uniform than islamic law.)though historically there is a discernible break between jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient israel and of the diaspora (the dispersion of jewish people after the conquest of israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the old testament is very close to that of the talmud, one of the primary codifications of jewish law in the diaspora. 尽管从历史角度来看,在古代以色列作为独立主权国家的犹太教法与大流散时期(diaspora,即以色列被征服后古代犹太人被巴比伦人逐出故土)的犹太教法之间存在着一个明晰可辨的断裂,然则,《旧约全书》(old testament)后半部分中法律内容的精神与《犹太教法典》(talmud)极为一脉相承,而所谓的《犹太教法典》,是指大流散时期犹太教法的主要典籍辑录之一。

 44. islam,on the other hand,represented a radical breakaway from the arab paganism that preceded it;islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle,(examination)of legal subject matter that was far from uniform,comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-islamic arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the non-arab peoples of the conquered territories. 另一方面,伊斯兰教则代表着与此前存在的阿拉伯异教(arab paganism)的一种根本上的决裂;伊斯兰法是从宗教的角度,对各种杂乱无章、绝无共同点的法律内容进行考察所致的结果,而这些法律内容实际上是由前伊斯兰阿拉伯国家(pre-islamic arabia)法律的不尽相同的组成部分以及由从被征服的土地上非阿拉伯民族借鉴过来的无数法律因素所构成。 (as it did )实际上是一句插入语。

  45. one such novel idea is that (idea) of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants' natural constitution:specifically,the idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes,if they can be identified and isolated,that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. hence,(there is ) the intensified research on legumes. 这其中的一个新颖思想就是,在植物的染色体(chromosome)内注入并非是该植物自然构造一个部分的那些不相关联的因基:具体而言,这一思想是,在非豆科植物内注入这样一些基因,倘若这些基因可被辨识出来并被分离开来,而这些基因业已使豆科植物宜于充当那些具备固氮作用的细菌的寄主。由此,对豆科植物的研究日趋深入。

  46. it is one of nature's great ironies that the availability of nitrogen in the soil frequently sets an upper limit on plant growth even though the plants' leaves are bathed in a sea of nitrogen gas. 下述情形真可谓是自然界的一个莫大讽刺:土壤中所能获得的氮肥量往往对植物的生长构成了一个上限,虽然植物的叶子被沐浴在一片氮气的海洋中。

  47. unless they succeed,the yield gains of the green revolution will be largely lost even if the genes in legumes that equip those plants to enter into a symbiosis with nitrogen fixers are identified and isolated,and even if the transfer of those gene complexes,once they are found, becomes possible. 除非他们能取得成功,不然的话,绿色革命的产量收益将在很大程度上损失殆尽,即使豆科植物中使这些植物有条件进入到与固氮细菌共生关系的基因可被辨识出来和分离开来的话,且即使这些基因综合体(gene complex),一旦被发现之后,其移植得以成为可能的话。

  48. its subject(to use maynard mack's categories)is "life-as-spectacle," for readers, diverted by its various incidents,observe its hero odysseus primarily from without;the tragic iliad,however,presents "life-as-experience":readers are asked to identify with the mind of achilles,whose motivations render him a not particularly likable hero. 其主题〔若借鉴梅纳德。迈克(maynard mack)的两个分类范畴的话〕是"人生作为外部景象",因为读者的注意力被作品那形形色色的事件所分散,主要是从外部来观察其主人公奥德修斯(odyssus)的;然而,富于悲剧色彩的《伊利亚特》所表现的则是"人生作为内心体验":读者被要求与阿基琉斯(achilles)的心灵产生共鸣,而其行为动机却致使他变作一个并非特别惹人喜爱的主人公。 (从分号后的语句推理出前面的意思)注:hero:主人公;without:外部;likable:有吸引力的

  49. most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates,so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. 在一条成年比目鱼身上显著存在的诸多不对称(asymmetry)特征中,最为吸人注目的是眼睛的摆位:在成年之前,一只眼睛发生移动,因此在成年比目鱼身上,两只眼睛均位于头部的同一侧面。

  50. a critique of handlin's interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660's suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined , and that explanations for the different treatment of black slaves in north and south america should be expanded . 一个对于h的关于为何法律上的奴隶制没有在17世纪60年代以前出现的原因所作解释的批评显示,关于奴隶制和种族偏见之间的关系的假说应当重新检查,而且显示出,对于在北美和南美之间的对黑怒的不同处理的解释应当被扩展。

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